Light Pollution Abatement
Each month Dan Taylor - Light Pollution Abatement (LPA) Director will post an update on LPA related activities.
Photos from the latest Dark Sky Preserve dedication...
LPA Report - March 2013
You have likely learned of the results from the County of Essex Council Meeting where I was given delegate status to present a request that the County amend its rural lighting policy.
With thanks to Matt McCall and Greg Mockler for their support in attending the meeting. Greg posted a fine, candid account of the meeting, worthy of reading in particular by all members residing in the County.
County Council decided, in my opinion, for ill advised action that was motivated by political considerations, ripe with sound bites, and not purely about public safety. It was frustrating to be entrapped in this session, without opportunity to offer rebuttals that were taken in earnest. It was evidently clear during the course of the proceeding that the outcome was pre-orchestrated. In particular, Mayor Hurst of Amherstburg, Mayor McDermott of Essex and Warden Bain of Tecumseh, almost sounding pre-coached, were especially supportive of the status quo. County engineer Tom Bateman, author of the policy was short on rationale but assertive with his opinions on roadway illumination.
As a result, the County will continue illuminating every rural intersection in Essex County with shallow sag lens luminaires. This will impact our rural skies and observing sites.
Unlike their anecdotes and suppositions, our position was based on the rational considerations set out in the Transportation Association of Canada ‘Guidelines for Illumination of Isolated Rural Intersections’. In this document there is a specific warning against introducing glare at rural intersections.
There are several courses of action to investigate such as:
• Letter to the editor, to gain public sentiment for our issue. This comes with its' own peril though.
• Seek to form a coalition of environmental groups and various environmental agencies and re-approach county government.
• Inquire at higher level of government, the legitimacy of the County of Essex's action.
LPA Report - February 2013
Please click on the following link for the February 2013 report.
LPA Report - January 2013
Dave Panton reports that the troublesome lights at the nearby trucking yard in Comber have been extinguished for several weeks now, for reasons unknown.
In December, I drafted a letter for our now Past-President Paul Pratt to send to the county warden and lodge our concern about their expanding lamping program. No word yet on a reply. I suspect that this may have to be pushed up to county council so that we can have our position heard. I have been trying for a year to get a meeting with county officials and to date been largely ignored.
Communicated with Dr. Chris Baddiley, author of understanding skyglow, regarding nuances of urban skyglow in relation to the RASC’s Urban Darksky Preserve program.
Communications with Transport Canada’s Windfarm / tower obstruction illumination working group regarding changes to lighting policy that are favourable for astronomical activity.
Communication with Heather Jablonski Essex Town Planner regarding a non full cut-off light at a redevelopment site. This has opened up a clerical issue with their standards and in turn may lead to enhanced lighting controls.
LPA Report - September 2012
Please click on the following link for the September 2012 report.
LPA Report - March 2012
LPA Report - April 2011
I made a formal submission to the MTO, and county officials managing the ‘Lauzon Parkway Improvements Environmental Assessment’ process. The requests was for use of full cut off lighting throughout the project.
Susan Sawyer Beaulieu attended a public meeting of the DRIC/gateway crossing project and presented light pollution materials.
Dave Panton and Dave Gabriele continue to work on getting the nearby construction yard lights redirected away from the observatory.
LPA Report - March 2011
I attended the Canadian Street Light Summit in Toronto. Full report shortly.I am pleased to report the MTO officials operating the Windsor Tunnel Canadian Plaza Master Plan Environmental Study responded positively to my request for FCO luminaires...Mr. Taylor,On behalf of the Ministry of Transportation and the City of Windsor, thank you for providing comments on the Windsor Tunnel Canadian Plaza Master Plan Environmental Study Report.Full cut-off illumination will be included as part of the detail design for the Canadian Plaza.If you have any additional questions or comments, please contact myself (905-823-8500), Wadah Al-Yassiri of the City of Windsor (519-255-6100 ext. 6494), or Rakesh Shreewastav of the Ministry of Transportation (519-973-7367).Yours truly,Leslie GreenforMichael Chiu, P.Eng.Consultant Project Manager
News from Hallam Observatory - Dave Gabriele took our concern about the offensive lighting to the office door of the Genrep facility. Dave received assurances that the lights would be modified to our benefit. Congrats Dave on your success! Dave Panton continues to monitor the situation and will keep us up to date.
To view a series of photos showing the impact of the light pollution at Hallam observatory click here.
LPA Report - February 2011
Submitted an abstract for presentation at the ECO - cities symposium in Montreal later this year.
Contacted the city about lighting at 2215 Huron Church. Apparently this is not a permit situation i.e., the city site plan control rules do not apply. City staff is looking into it however.
Attending the Canadian Street light Summit in Toronto March 6 and 7.
Dave Panton continues to make our concerns known to officials regarding both the windfarm and construction yard issues near the observatory.
National committee - Assisted in drafting a letter to the Governor General asking for recognition of light pollution as matter of concern.
LPA Report - January 2011
Windsor Detroit Tunnel Plaza - Submitted a formal request via the environmental assessment process for FCO lighting throughout the project.
St Clair College - Contacted the city about non FCO lights on campus. Learned that the college is not subject to city site plan control. I will contact the college in the near future.
ECOCITY 2011 abstract submission - I am preparing a submission for acceptance of a short presentation on the effect of light pollution in the urban environment. The summit is to be held in Montreal in late August.
Culling research papers on Light at Night - A number of research papers have been found that will support various RASC light pollution initiatives. One will be effective in dealing with the upcoming OMB hearing regarding a development abutting Ojibway lands.
Yet another lighting intrusion has occurred near our observatory. It appears to be a relatively short term. Dave Panton has received assurances from Lakeshore officials that the lighting will be modified.
LPA Report - November 2010Dave Panton has looked into reports from Lakeshore of yet another trucking development at the Comber exit. He has learned that FCO requirement will be enforced during construction.I have been assisting the RASC national light pollution abatement committee in the matter of issuing a position statement on the International Dark Sky’s Model lighting Ordinance. There are serious flaws in the concepts of the Model lighting Ordinance. See below for the rationale.The position statement was approved by national council at their recent meeting in October. Notification has been sent to the IDA however to date there has been no official response. Position statement text will be uploaded shortly:Rationale:Wholesale changes are taking place with the lighting standards we've come to know. This will affect the way we conceive, communicate about, and use the nomenclature of lighting. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America(IESNA or IES) has rethought their classification system of outdoor lighting, and how it is quantified. The motivation for these changes is integral to the advent of the Model Lighting Ordinance or MLO. The MLO curiously, is parented in the lighting industries' apparent acknowledgement that their heretofore-lighting designs have a negative effect on the nocturnal environment. See: http://docs.darksky.org/MLO/2010/MLOdraft19July.pdfGone will be the familiar luminaire classification terms, FCO, SCO, and CO, in it place is a stratification of zonal distribution with prescribed amounts of light. It is called B.U.G. or Backlight, Uplight, and Glare. Simplified, the sphere of light emitted from a given luminaire is divided into three primary sectors. Uplight is that which is above the horizontal, Glare is below the horizontal and extends forward to a given target area. Backlight is what is left over. Each of these are subdivided further into smaller zones. Go to: www.aal.net/content/resources/files/BUG_rating.pdf for graphic and a document explaining the BUG system.It can be seen that the BUG system is a sound engineering exercise that comprehensively quantifies light emissions from fixtures. Unfortunately it does not translate well at all when it comes to describing the sort of ideal lighting we advocate. For example, glare just below the horizontal is problematic in areas near a source. Under the former FCO classification, contending with high angle glare was integeral to the design. Under BUG it is distinguished from uplight and requires the additional 'G ' values to be identified.More disturbing, only U- 0 has no uplight emissions and is equivalent more or less to 'fully shielded'. One might ask why in a light pollution abatement scheme where there are five unique call-outs, only one has zero uplight. U's 1,2, 3 and 4 have permitted uplight values. U 4 allows for 1000 direct uplight lumens equivalent to a 60 to 80 watt incandesce bulb and a provisional U5 is unlimited! Needless to say, this is troubling for the integrity of light pollution abatement.Regarding the MLO
In case you are not familiar, the Model Lighting Ordinance, in draft version # 2, is the product of a joint effort between the International Dark Sky and Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. This document is an attempt to provide a template for municipalities to adopt light pollution management styled bylaws. The MLO is based on a European system of regional lighting zones. The definitions area as follows:Lighting Zone( LZ) 0- Natural, preservation landLZ1- RuralLZ2- suburbanLZ3- Industrial, CommercialLZ4-high density, entertainment
The MLO has been drawn up by a task force consisting of IDA and IESNA personnel. It is noted that most of the IDA people are actually from the lighting industry.In its current draft, the MLO is characterised as a compromise document throughout. The MLO task force is determined to see it through with the contentious uplight allowances. This, despite the presentation of many well thought arguments pointing to a number of shortcomings inherent with the MLO. Accordingly, it has become a divisive subject among IDA members.The line is very clearly drawn between lighting industry factions and core light pollution advocates.If you will recall Robert, on our behalf, submitted a comprehensive critique based on our societies LPA policies. Among these was request for attention to the impact of artificial light on the nocturnal environment including human health issues. Contact Robert for a copy.We are all aware of the emerging research associating Light at Night (LAN) and effects on human health. However, lighting industry is highly sceptical of this research and has issued several documents outlining their position. The IES position statement can be found at: http://www.ies.org/flash/PositionStatements/PS-03-10.swfAs an IDA member, I submitted comment as well. It can be viewed at: http://www.rascwindsor.com/pages/light-pollution-abatement.php (September report )There are subtle aspects of the MLO that deserve close attention. One group has provided a thorough critique you will find informative: http://fixthemlo.org/2010adhocfindings.php I suggest the pdf file.In the near future, as manufacturers, distributors and retailers adapt, it is doubtless you will encounter the IESNA BUG scheme. Moreover, as is common in Canada for municipalities to default to the IESNA's recommended practises, lighting industry officials will actively advocate for MLO actions here.
LPA Report - September 2010
Request to membership to monitor the media, especially in Lakeshore, regarding details of a new major development forthcoming near our observatory. I have letters planned to remind the town of its obligation to ensure minimal lighting impact.Review and submit comment on the joint International Dark Sky/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America draft 2 of their Model Lighting Ordinance(MLO). Among dark sky advocates the MLO is highly contentious. In this proposed scheme, situations will be permissible with significant uplight. To see the IDA's MLO page visit: http://www.darksky.org/mc/page.do?sitePageId=84399My submitted comments as follows:General Comments
- NO uplight should be permitted in any zone to ensure light pollution abatement is maximized.
- Zones 0, 1, 2; NO permitted light in BUG areas BVH and - from Baddily research. The premise of the MLO is based on BUG and TM 15. However, the relationship between lamp source colour and skyglow is critical and must be taken into account. The rationalization here is based on the knowledge that per lumen, blue/white light sources produce 2-3 times more skyglow. There is strong evidence that these same lamps have the potential to cause physiological harm in the nocturnal biosphere. Therefore, please provide warning on lamp source colour and advocate for warm source lamps.
- Recognize that there are two distinct skyglow environments: local and remote. It is essential for this basic principle to be inherent in the proposing of light pollution controls via the MLO. Their causes are clearly different and can be isolated from each other at the source.
Specific commentsP15 User’s GuidesLimits to off site ImpactsUse of LP fixture images is confusing with respect to the intent of the accompanying text (i.e., use images of fixtures with interior baffles).IX. Table C BUG RatingParagraph 3It is entirely disingenuous to characterize the permitted uplight of LZ’s 3 and 4 as ‘minor’. Please provide a clear understanding of how much up light is permitted.
LPA Report - May 2010Call for Assistance with Wasteful Lghting on the Provincial Road/401 Interchange Gateway Project.Your support is requested in the matter of wasteful lighting installations at the recently completed Gateway project at the Provincial Road and Highway 401 interchange.FYI, beginning late last year, I composed two letters outlining objections to DRIC managers, then later one to Sandra Pupatello's office and later still, one to my own MPP, Bruce Crozier. There has been no reply from any of these offices.On a follow up phone call to Bruce Crozier's office, a staffer said they contacted Sandra Pupatello and likewise did not receive a reply.You are urged to drive out to this location to see for yourself the lighting issue at this location. Once there you will note the street lights at each end of the project on Provincial road are sag lens prismatic fixtures. The nine or so high mast fixtures are cut off design, ie. slightly dished shaped. Cut off fixtures have significant glare and some uplight, moreover this falls short of the full cut off requirements. Proof of their poor design can be seen nightly from any direction many kilometers away.You will notice two full cut off fixtures at the western off ramp traffic light. They were the last ones installed and interestingly, AFTER I made an initial contact with the project managers regarding the improper lighting.The project design stipulated full cut fixtures. This was assured to me over a number of meetings and one presentation with managers at public reviews over the last several years. Dave Panton and Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu likewise met with officials and received assurances that our requests for environmentally friendly fixtures would be applied to project standards.There are a number of questions with serious consequences. Why were project requirements for full cutoff lighting overlooked? What will be done to correct these wasteful fixtures at this site? Lastly, and most importantly, how will this oversight be avoided in the forthcoming gateway projects?Your help is needed to reinforce our concern with officials about the lack of regard for project requirements and getting answers to these questions. Please consider writing or at least calling your MPP and letting them know of your concern about lighting. Your support will certainly gain attention in regard to this matter.You may be aware recently Donna Ronconi helped in this sort of action in the town of Amherstburg and it proved very successful.
LPA Report - April 2010- Contacted my MPP, Bruce Crozier's Office, regarding the non FCO lighting at the Provincial Rd /401 Interchange. His staff in turn sent a message to Sandra Pupatello's Office which has not been replied to. Hmmp. At any rate, if there is no response from Bruce Crozier's Office by the weekend, there may be a need for the membership's support through a letter writing campaign to your MPP. As was the case for Amherstburg, such action led to very positive results.- Attended the Windsor Enviroexpo this weekend past. A number of promising contacts were made, one especially with Pelee Island. The island township is last remaining community in Essex County to adopt FCO practices. From my conversation with the resident on hand at their booth, there may be a cultural challenge to getting changes there.
LPA Report - March 2010- Thanks to Donna Ronconi for her steadfast effort to get the attention of Amherstburg town officials in the matter of the new street lighting. On Monday March 15, I met with the public utilities manager and two of his staff. The lighting program, which is limited to the core area of the town, is actually almost complete. Although the luminaires they selected are not full cut-off, they have minimal uplight. Glare may be an issue with this design. If anyone happens through downtown Amherstburg at night please share your impressions. In addition to street lighting I presented the Windsor lighting intensity standards. They are very interested in them are will investigate how best to apply them to their development documents.- On March 11, I attended a IDA sponsored symposium on light pollution in Chicago. There were a number of presentations with a lot of good information.- The new Cross Canada Full Cut-off survey of municipalities is almost finished and ready to view on our light pollution web page.Please notify me of any light pollution activity you undertake so that it can be included in future reports.
LPA Report - February 2010- Working is ongoing to update and re-issue the Cross Canada Full Cut-off Survey. This survey lists communities in Canada that have light pollution actions in a number of categories. When ready, a link will be posted- Still waiting on a reply from a letter to MPP Sandra Pupatello regarding the lighting at the Provincial road and 401 interchange.- One of the IDA's principle dogmas is that streetlights contribute a minimum of 30% to local sky glow. This is being challenged from lighting engineers from Toronto.One of the Toronto light pollution policy members is writing a statement on the matter. I have been supplying material in support of his effort.
LPA Report - January 2010
- Donna Ronconi has successfully received the attention of an official in the Town of Amherstburg regarding a federally sponsored major re-lamping project. I hope to follow up with the town planner in the near future. Donna has also been successful in getting the City of Windsor's attention regarding the excessively bright lights at the Windsor Disposal Service depot abutting the E C Row expressway.- Dave Panton reports via a note from Randy Groundwater that the Comber truck stop yard lights have been converted to FCO. This brings to conclusion an episode that has made many feel victimized by a developer's systematic wonton disregard for the environment. However by this success, it has been proven that entrenched light pollution controls, through the municipal site plan control process, work very well. Especially with persistent attention. Thank you Dave for your steadfastness on our behalf.- I have been working with the envirogroup opposed to the proposed Coco development near the Ojibway complex as their light pollution expert. Early in December we were advised to submit official statements to the OMB judge, outlining our particular concern with the proposed development. The document can be disclosed shortly along with Coco's lighting expert's rebuttal. Christmas week we were advised to have our presentations submitted in advance of the hearing, scheduled for mid January 2010. I assimilated material from a number of sources, including Dr Travis Longcore, recognized a the leading expert on the effect of artificial illumination on the nocturnal environment. At any rate, the process has been stalled until next year. Coco requested and received an adjournment until January 2011.- The 401/Provincial overpass construction is now complete. As part of the border infrastructure it was supposed to be illuminated with FCO fixtures. During the final phase it was apparent that the lighting was not FCO. I wrote the project manager and although did not receive a reply, the remaining lights henceforth, were FCO. Unfortunately there are only two. I have followed up with a letter to Sandra Pupatello's office and will be calling shortly.- If in Windsor and you see a new development going up with non FCO lights please take the time to call the 311 system.
LPA Report - November 2009
- Access the 2009 Annual Report from LPA Director - Dan Taylor by clicking here.
The report is in Adobe Acrobat pdf format. If you do not have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your computer, download your free copy.
LPA Report - September 2009
- Met with Lasalle Planner, Larry Silani, Building Supervisor Brian Geary and Development Engineer, Jerry Barycki. Successfully persuaded them to incorporate Windsor style lighting standards into their site plan control documents.- Traveled to Manitoulin Island on behalf of the RASC to officially mark the society’s designation of Gordon’s Park as a Dark Sky Preserve.
- Writing a light pollution impact document at the request of a preservation group for presentation at an upcoming OMB hearing on a major development adjacent to Ojibway Prairie Provincial Nature Reserve.
LPA Report - June 2009
- Correspondence with the City of Welland to encourage the use of FCO lighting.
- Communicating with the township of Pelee Island about FCO developers policy.
- Request to meet with LaSalle officials about FCO developers policy.
- Asked to present the National RASC 'Dark Sky Preserve' certificate at the Manitoulin star party on Manitoulin Island.
LPA Report - May 2009
- Presentation to the Woodstock Environmental Action Committee, Woodstock town hall.
- Ford Motor Co. development on Riverside Drive, at the site of the power plant, non conforming lighting reported to 311.
- Requested and received approval from the national LPA budget for purchase of the license (right-of-use) for the famous "during and after the blackout of '03".
LPA Report - April 2009
- Contacted Essex County administration about new installs of sag lens 'cut off' luminaires. Spoke with county engineer Mr. Fazicash and discussed a return to FCO policy.
- Comber Truck stop lighting.
- Dave Panton, Pierre Boulos and myself have tendered numerous letters and calls to an assortment Lakeshore officials and regional politicians. For my part, I have received assurances from senior staff that the offending lights will not pass inspection. The developer has been put on notice. Remedies are underway.
- Note: there is a prescribed course of events that typically play out enroute to remediation. In other words, it will take some time before the corrections will occur.
- I prepared and submitted a response for the IDA/IESNA's current draft Model Lighting Ordinance
- Point Pelee received the RASC's newly minted DSP logo via Robert Dick, chair, national LPA committee. Superintendent Marian Stranak responded with a thank you note.
LPA Report - March 2009
Letter to ELK re: CO fixtures
A number of CO (cut-off) fixtures were seen at various locations in Essex county. CO fixtures have a small direct uplight component. A letter was sent to ELK energy and I will be following up with a call this week.
Review report on the Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO)
I am preparing a report of the IDA/IESNA MLO draft for the national LPA committee. There are serious short coming in the document. http://docs.darksky.org/MLO/MLOPublicReview020909.pdf
Home Depot conceding?
On a late evening drive by I notice the Walker Road side of the Home Deport building lights were off. Perhaps someone can look into the situation with the offensive rear light.
OMB hearing moved to June
The OMB hearing on the Ojibway Development has been moved to June.
On the weekend Dave Panton discovered a great new hazard for Hallam Observatory. The new Comber Truck stop has installed 22 prison yard style fixtures. These will have a significant impact on the skies at Hallam. I am in touch with Lakeshore admin. staff. Thankfully, the site has not been to final inspection nor are there any variances. The matter will be looked into by the staff. Stay tuned we may need your support with letters and call to LS politicians.
LPA Report - February 2009
Working on tasks for the IYA ‘Sky Quality Measuring Project’ see http://www.rasc.ca/lpa/sqm/ for more details on this IYA event.
Susan Sawyer Beaulieu is communicating with DRIC/MTO on the impact of high mast lighting for neighbourhoods along the border route corridor.
Dave Panton has been communicating with officials regarding lighting at the proposed new prison project.
In March I will be one of a number of people speaking on environmental impact of a major development abutting the Ojibway Nature Preserve.
LPA Report - February 2012
LPA Report - January 2012
LPA Report - Summer and Fall 2011 Activities
Essex - reaffirmed with town planner that town developments and street lighting will be FCO.
Comber Truck Stop - confirmed with Lakeshore town senior planner that the facility will be required to exchange fixtures for FCO unit fixtures, although no time frame was offered.
Letters to Detroit River International Crossing senior project manager, and Dwight Duncan MPP, requesting affirmation that FCO fixtures will be used throughout the project as per prior agreements.
Received a reply letter from the project office affirming the use of FCO streetlights for the above noted project.
Reviewing the Dark Sky Preserve status with Point Pelee NP Staff.
Windsor Essex Mobility Group, Windsor Essex Parkway - Letter to design managers concerning the disregard for the nocturnal environment especially in the document language (http://www.weparkway.ca/).
The debacle with Big Three Auto car lot lighting may be coming to an end. If you will recall owners bypassed city lighting regulations through legal action. Now they are beset with serious fraudulent legal matters that have shut them down.
Wrote a light pollution position paper for Toronto Atmospheric Fund's energy and light pollution policy initiative.
RASC SQM project reports have been received from a number of unit holders across thee country.
LPA Report - June 2011
Two initiatives will be pursued over the Summer months:
1. Lighting matters in the Town of Amherstburg
2. The lighting oversights at the Dougal - Provincial Road/401 overpasses
LPA Report - May 2011
Susan Sawyer Beaulieu has attended public meetings with the Windsor Essex Parkway group representing our concerns about lighting.
My efforts were as follows;
Letter to Amherstburg town officials Lou Zarlinga and Pam Mallot regarding non FCO lighting fixtures on their new waste water treatment plant- no reply to date.
Letter to Lakeshaore officials, Maureen Lesperance, Planning Coordinator, and CC’d Mr. Tom Tourtalias, Director Engineering Services and Mr. Tony DiCiocco, Manager of Engineering services, Lakeshore regarding potential confusion with new lights at the Comber truck yard. The intent was to alert them to this systematic but perhaps unintentional oversight that could lead to more instances of non FCO fixture installation. Tony D. tried to email me with a reply, however his post bounced. Knowing that Mike could reach me, he redirected his response though Mike Mastronardi to me. Thank you Mike!
The next day I called Tony to discuss this issue. From this conversation, I learn a number of facts about the situation with these developments.
1. The truck yard contract has not closed i.e., the town can still apply pressure to get the developer to conform to FCO.
2. These new lights where not OK’d by the town or its engineering firm.
3. Tony worked with the developer to get the proper perimeter lamps installed at the truck yard.
4. The two offending construction yards to the west are also under contract to use only FCO lighting, ie. we don’t need the yard operator’s cooperation, the town will (and apparently has) enforce this.
5. Tony is responsible for developer compliance and was assuring that he would look into the construction yard’s compliance the next day and view the lights in the truck yard.
6. Wanted to convey his concern that the town not be viewed as the culprit in these instances ( I assured him that it was not so, moreover we were pleased with the progress they had achieved on our behalf)
The Toronto Light Pollution Policy group is reformulating. This time around I will be taking an advisory role providing materials and so forth, in support of the groups efforts.
Montreal ECO city summit: Received notice that my abstract has been accepted for a poster presentation at the summit in August. More info at
Met with Mark Major, Technical Services Coordinator at Point Pelee National Park. He accepted a proposal to review the park's dark sky preserve (DSP) status with regard for the changes in protocol since the park first became a DSP. Among a number of new requirements this includes, maps of sites suitable for observing taken both night and day, developing a plan to bring all park lighting into line with DSP guidelines.
County of Essex
I drafted a letter requesting that the County return to full cut-off light with supporting documentation (listed below). With much thanks to Windsor Centre member support, the letter was co-signed by a majority of members present at our January meeting. The letter was posted January 30th. I have followed up with several emails and one phone call that have not been responded to as of this date. This is not entirely unexpected as the policy change was intended to be permanent and the material attached will require some time to absorb.
- Update letter from Carl Shaflik
- Letter from Don McLean of Don McLean Associates, one of the authors of Transportation Association of Canada's (TAC) 'Guide for Roadway Illumination'. Mclean offers a clear quote from the guide.
- Excerpt from the Model Lighting Ordinance regarding roadway lighting
I can forward any of these items in full upon request.